phi 208 final exam

Question 1. 1. According to Caroline Heldman, which of the following is a question that applies to her sexual object test? (Points : 1)

       Does the image show people having sex?

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       Does the image show a person as something that can be bought or sold?

       Does the image display a full image of a woman?

       Does the image display violence against people in the image?

Question 2. 2. What would best express Colonel Nicholson’s (Alec Guinness) view regarding what makes a soldier, as expressed in the The Bridge on the River Kwai clip? (Points : 1)

       The virtues of a good soldier are consistent no matter the circumstance.

       A good solider only acts virtuously when it benefits himself and his country.

       The good soldier regards the enemy as having less intrinsic worth than one’s own people.

       All of the above.

Question 3. 3. In 2003, how many people died in Canada, according to the video “Dying for Care: Quality Palliative and End of Life Care in Canada”? (Points : 1)


       2.2 million



Question 4. 4. What is Tom Regan’s position about the use of animals in research and agriculture? (Points : 1)

       Animals should be used whenever it can be proven that the human benefits outweigh the harms caused to the animals

       Animals should never be used for medical research or commercial agriculture

       Animals should only be used for medical research shown to be beneficial to humanity, never for agriculture

       Animals should be used in both medical research and agriculture but should be treated as humanely as possible

Question 5. 5. According to the video, “Religion, War, and Violence,” for a war to be considered just, it must (Points : 1)

       be aimed at repelling aggression

       have a strong probability of success

       must be only used as a last resort

       all of the above

Question 6. 6. In the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals we find that to act on ‘duty’ is (Points : 1)

       to act from a self-seeking purpose

       to act because you want to

       to act out of respect for law

       to act out of the fear of God

Question 7. 7. The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it (Points : 1)





Question 8. 8. What is Tom Regan’s main criticism of the contractarian approach to ethical duties? (Points : 1)

       It works fine for humans without problems, but it has not yet been applied to animals

       It ignores the importance of pain and suffering when it comes to ethics

       It would allow all kinds of human injustice if a stronger group is able to oppress the members of a weaker group of people

       He does not criticize it; he things that contractarianism, if properly understood, represents the most rational approach to ethical problems

Question 9. 9. Tom Regan’s view of animals is that (Points : 1)

       They are important but not quite as important as human beings

       They have rights, which means that they should never be used for human purposes

       They may be ethically used because they were bred and raised for that purpose

       That they may be eaten because do not have souls like we do and are lower on the food chain

Question 10. 10. Kant explains that respect for a person is: (Points : 1)

       the recognition of the worth of the person’s potential contribution to society.

       dependent upon whether the person respects others.

       both A and B

       none of the above.

Question 11. 11. According to Kant, the moral worth of an action: (Points : 1)

       lies in its conformity to the moral law.

       lies in the value of the expected result.

       lies in its conformity to God’s commands.

       lies in its usefulness to society.

Question 12. 12. According to Robinson, a person who has integrity is someone who: (Points : 1)

       Does what is right, only if it is approved of by others

       Does what is right, even when it is disapproved of by others

       Does what is right, only when commanded to do so

       Does what is right, unless they are commanded to do otherwise

       None of the above

Question 13. 13. Kenneth Anderson argues that the fact that drones make the resort to force easier (Points : 1)

       means that enemies will always be too afraid to attack us

       does not mean that drones make the resort to force too easy

       means that we should instead favor cruise missiles

       all of the above

Question 14. 14. Gilligan claims that females tend to see relationships as these (Points : 1)





Question 15. 15. The conventional doctrine is endorsed by: (Points : 1)


       the American Medical Association.

       both a and b.

       neither a nor b.

Question 16. 16. In the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective,” Jeremy Waldron argues that drones are not ethical because their use involves (Points : 1)

       total transparency and accountability

       the assurance that only combatants will be targeted

       the maintenance of a secret death list by government authorities

       all of the above

Question 17. 17. This product was pulled from Abercrombie and Fitch stores based on protests through a blog (Points : 1)


       deep V-neck t-shirts

       padded swimsuit tops for toddlers

       yoga pants

Question 18. 18. Glaukon seems to think that people are (Points : 1)

       Naturally benevolent

       Naturally pious

       Naturally just

       Naturally egocentric

Question 19. 19. According to John Stuart Mill, utilitarianism takes into account the happiness of: (Points : 1)

       only the agent.

       only the agent and those the agent cares about.

       everyone, but weights the happiness of the agent more heavily.

       everyone, and weights everyone’s happiness equally.

Question 20. 20. Kant argues that when I find someone in need: (Points : 1)

       I should give whatever spare resources I have unless it makes me worse off than the person I’m trying to help.

       I should consider a world in which no one helped me when I was in need, recognize that I could never will such a world, and help them in the best way that I can.

       I should sympathize with them, but recognize that the world is better off overall if we each only look after our own interests.

       I should remember that as autonomous beings they are responsible for their own situation, and thus that I have no responsibility to help them out.

Question 21. 21. Which of the following would be an expression of rule utilitarianism, rather than act utilitarianism? (Points : 1)

       “It’s okay to torture this person because it may save thousands of lives.”

       “It’s immoral to torture this person because the pain it would cause him outweighs any potential benefits.”

       “Even if torturing this person right now might be beneficial, the overall consequences of permitting torture would be harmful, and so we shouldn’t allow it in any circumstance.”

       “We shouldn’t torture this person because we wouldn’t want him torturing us.”

Question 22. 22. Robinson describes magnanimity as the mean between the extremes of: (Points : 1)

       Vanity and vice

       Generosity and selfishness

       Generosity and greed

       Vanity and pusillanimity

       None of the above

Question 23. 23. What moral theory does Jeremy Bentham (with whom Singer seems to agree) endorse? (Points : 1)

       oral relativism



       Social Contract Theory

Question 24. 24. In the article “War and Massacre,” Thomas Nagel argues that moral absolutism (Points : 1)

       is consistent with the principles of utilitarianism

       can be used to justify genocide

       is primarily concerned with what a person is doing

       is primarily concerned with the outcome of a person’s actions

Question 25. 25. Midgley analyzes the position that each society is a separate culture with its own values. This position is known as (Points : 1)

       Moral relativism

       Moral isolationism

       Moral structuralism

       Moral voluntarism

Question 26. 26. Rachels claims that most actual cases of killing: (Points : 1)

       are morally worse than most actual cases of letting die.

       are morally the same most actual cases of letting die.

       are morally less bad than most actual cases of letting die.

       are morally required.

Question 27. 27. According to Leon Kass, the drive to legalize euthanasia can be largely attributed to (Points : 1)

       the rise in a largely technical approach to healing.

       an increase in our sympathy.

       an increased respect for human dignity.

       the secularization of modern society.

Question 28. 28. Nagel argues that the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were just like what other kind of action, just on a larger scale? (Points : 1)

       Killing the wife and child of someone attacking you in order to distract him from his attack.

       Bombing a munitions factory and killing some of the civilian workers inside.

       Firing at an enemy soldier and hitting an innocent bystander with a stray bullet.

       Bombing a convoy of enemy soldiers. 

Question 29. 29. Rachels claims that active euthanasia: (Points : 1)

       sometimes leads to more suffering than passive euthanasia.

       sometimes leads to the same amount of suffering as passive euthanasia.

       sometimes leads to less suffering than passive euthanasia.

       all of the above.

Question 30. 30. Robinson agrees with Aquinas’ idea that (Points : 1)

       Honor is a subjective quality

       Honor is secondary to integrity

       Honor must be displayed in action

       Honor is secondary to magnanimity

       None of the above

Question 31. 31. Rachels claims that once it has been decided that euthanasia is desirable in a case: (Points : 1)

       a moral error has already been made.

       it has been decided that death is no greater an evil than the patient’s continued existence.

       it has been decided that the patient does not have a right to life.

       the amount of suffering of the patient becomes irrelevant.

Question 32. 32. Aristotle regards passions and feelings like anger as: (Points : 1)

       a sign that one lacks rational control over one’s state of mind.

       always either an excess or a defect in one’s character.

       capable of excess, defect, or the intermediate state characteristic of virtue.

       Both (a) and (b).

Question 33. 33. Michael Walzer argues that in the unique world of war, both morality and authority are (Points : 1)

       radically contested

       established by rules of war

       established by neutral states

       none of the above

Question 34. 34. James Rachels points out that when passive euthanasia is employed on infants, they typically die of: (Points : 1)




       dehydration and infection.

Question 35. 35. According to Colin Stokes, in this film all the heroic, wise, and villainous characters are female. (Points : 1)

       The Little Mermaid

       Star Wars

       The Wizard of Oz

       Les Miserables

Question 36. 36. This is the name for prostitutes in India who have been dedicated to a female goddess (Points : 1)





Question 37. 37. Kant claims that the moral law is given to each person by: (Points : 1)

       God’s commands.

       one’s own rational will.

       one’s natural desires.

       social conditioning.

Question 38. 38. What does Tom Regan say about the cruelty/kindness approach to animal ethics? (Points : 1)

       The best way to explain animal ethics is in terms of our obligation to be kind and not cruel to animals

       It is inadequate because it is possible to do wrong while being kind, and it is possible to do wrong without being deliberately cruel

       It has no relevance to animal ethics because animals are cruel to each other

       You have to be cruel to be kind, in the right measure

Question 39. 39. Hill claims that a fruitful way to think about the badness of destroying the environment is: (Points : 1)

       To think about what kind of human would choose to destroy the earth.

       To appeal to theories about God and care for the earth.

       To examine people’s intuitions about whether it is right to harm the environment.

       To examine the rights that belong to the environment and act on the basis of those rights.

Question 40. 40. Midgley thinks that although we can understand or appreciate other societies, (Points : 1)

       We should never judge the values of other societies.

       We must always respect the values of other societies.

       We have the right to judge other societies.

       We cannot understand them well enough to judge them.

Question 41. 41. Aristotle claims that the function of human life is: (Points : 1)

       survival and reproduction.

       service to the gods.

       rational activity.

       to pursue pleasure.

Question 42. 42. Which of the following does Peter Singer assert about the principle of equality? (Points : 1)

       People should have equal rights because they are factually equal.

       People with higher abilities, it stands to reason, should have greater rights.

       Different groups of humans should have equal rights if scientific investigation proves that there are no genetic differences in their abilities.

       It is a prescription that we should treat people equally regardless of their differing abilities.

Question 43. 43. What is speciesism? (Points : 1)

       The view that all animals should be treated equally regardless of their abilities

       The view that endangered species have the right to exist

       Allowing the interests of one’s own species to override the greater interests of members of other species

       Protecting endangered species from extinction regardless of economic costs

Question 44. 44. According to the scene from The Bridge on the River Kwai, what is the ultimate reason Colonel Nicholson (Alec Guinness) insists that the soldiers work hard to build the best bridge possible: (Points : 1)

       Because even in captivity, they know that God is watching them.

       So that the British forces will be able to fight the Japanese more effectively.

       Because the better the bridge, the more benefit they will receive and less punishment they will endure from their captors.

       Because it is an expression of the strength and dignity of a soldier even in captivity.

Question 45. 45. A false promise, according to Kant, is: (Points : 1)

       something that I could never will to be universal law.

       something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits the majority.

       something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits me.

       something that I could will to be universal law only when it prevents a greater wrong.

Question 46. 46. Tom Regan discusses the concept of indirect duties. Having only indirect duties towards animals means (Points : 1)


       That we have a duty not to harm animals but only because of the harm it might do to humans

       That we have no duties regarding animals whatsoever

       That our duties towards animals are equal to our duties towards humans

       That we actually have greater duties to animals than to humans

Question 47. 47. Glaukon thinks that deep in our hearts we all believe that (Points : 1)

       Injustice is more profitable than justice.

       We will have a clearer conscience if we always stick to the laws of justice.

       To be unjust is to be a fool.

       Both B and C.

Question 48. 48. How have historians tended to treat typically male tendencies versus typically female tendencies? (Points : 1)

       Historians value female tendencies more highly because it is childbearing and childrearing that enable the group to survive

       Female traditions have been emphasized because they reflect keep aesthetic refinement and sophistication

       Male tendencies, like mathematics, warfare, and even singing have been prized more highly

       No correlation has been found at all between criminal violence and childhood abuse

Question 49. 49. What, according to Noddings, do male philosophers tend to say about death (as opposed to women)? (Points : 1)

       Men are more brave in the face of death than women because of their natural courageousness

       Death tends to be harder on men due to their attachments to the glory of this world

       Women are more able to allow their faith in the afterlife overcome their aversion to death

       Male philosophers often talk as though the world or reason and abstraction is superior to the physical world of the body

Question 50. 50. Rachels concludes that: (Points : 1)

       active euthanasia is always worse than passive euthanasia.

       passive euthanasia is always worse than active euthanasia.

       active euthanasia is always morally permissible.

       none of the above.

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